Sunday, October 22, 2006

Tips for Organizing Staff Training

All student newspapers should schedule training sessions each time the staff turns over. If you have a large staff, you may want to organize special sections for reporters, editors, photographers and designers. If your staff is small, you’ll probably want to have one training for editors and another for the staff as a whole. Here are some tips for making training sessions effective.

1. Survey the staff. Ask both returning and incoming staffers what skills they’d most like to learn.

2. Get organized. Assign a person or a committee to organize the training. Typically, advisers and top editors or teams of editors create training programs.

3. Find time. Decide how much time to devote to training. Some newspapers sponsor multi-day or even multi-week seminars. Others can only spare a day or two.

4. Arrange the date early. That way students can plan vacations and work schedules around it. A week or two before the term starts is usually best, although some papers find they get better attendance if they schedule training a day or two before classes start.

5. Set a budget. If your newspaper has the money, you may want to arrange for meals or a special venue for the training, such as a hotel, restaurant or conference center. If your budget is tight, you can hold the training in your newsroom or in classrooms and have students handle lunch on their own. If meals are too pricey, provide drinks and snacks to keep people’s energy up.

6. Recruit local journalists. Invite pros to lead workshops. Alumni of your newspaper who are now working in the field can be especially effective and inspiring.

7. Learn the law. Invite your newspaper’s attorney, a law professor or other media law expert to offer a session on legal issues, such as libel, copyright and open meetings and records laws.

8. Break the ice. If the staffers don’t all know each other, open the training with introductions or ice breakers so people can get to know each other.

9. Mix it up. Make sure some of the activities are interactive; intersperse large group sessions with small-group discussions or exercises.

0. End on a high note. Conclude the training with an informal social gathering, such as a pizza party. Encourage veteran staffers to mingle with new people.

Adapted from The Student Newspaper Survival Guide by Rachele Kanigel, Blackwell Publishing, 2006.

Friday, October 13, 2006

Preparing for the big story

Every college newspaper encounters a big story from time to time. A rainstorm floods the campus. A distraught student jumps out of a dorm window. The university president abruptly resigns. A melee breaks out after a big game.

You have to be ready to make decisions, collect the information quickly and report it to your readership. Here are some tips on getting yourself and your staff ready for the big story.

Before the event:

1. Assemble a staff contact list. Put together a list of contact information (e-mail addresses; cell, home and work phone numbers; work and school schedules) for your entire staff. Make sure each staff member has one and post them around the newsroom.
2. Develop a disaster plan. Figure out how you will work if the power goes out in your newsroom. Think about using battery-operated devices and alternative work places. Set up an alternative printing arrangement in case you can’t print the paper the usual way.
3. Create a breaking news culture. Make it clear everyone should call in or report for duty if they hear of a major story.
4. Create cooperative arrangements. Develop relationships with other campus media so you can share resources in the event of a major story.
5. Train for the big story. Just as athletes train for the big race or the big game you've got to train for the big story. Make sure you have some writers who can write really fast, that reporters know how to look up public documents at a moment’s notice; that designers can create infographics; that online producers can post stories and photos from anywhere.

As the news breaks:

6. Assemble a team. Assign reporters, photographers, editors, graphic artists, online producers and designers to work on the story. Break the story into manageable assignments and make sure each team member understands his or her role.
7. Staff your newsroom. Keep a few key people in the newsroom to take phone calls and assign stories and photos as new developments arise.
8. Assign a rewrite person. Designate one or two of your best – and fastest – writers to put together the major story as reporters in the field call in information or send dispatches.
9. Think visually. Look for graphic elements that will help tell the story – timelines, explanatory graphics, locator maps, info boxes.
10. Keep your readers in mind. Think about what readers will want and need to know – names of people injured or killed; shelters and other services for people affected; places to donate money, food or clothing.
11. Plan a package. Don’t try to tell the story in one big article. Think about sidebars, lists, infographics, bios of key players, timelines, info boxes and other devices to make the story engaging and thorough.
12. Develop a logo or project title. Think about a catchy title that you can use for the breaking news package and follow-up stories. If you have time, create a logo to go along with it.
13. Make use your Web site. Post a news bulletin on your Web site as soon as the story breaks. Continue to update the story as it unfolds.
14. Use multimedia storytelling online. Use audio, video, slide shows or photo galleries, and other multimedia devices to tell the story on your Web site.
15. Create an online community gathering spot. Set up bulletin boards or a memorial page where readers can share photos and comments about the story.

Following up:

16. Assess your coverage. Have a staff discussion evaluating what went well and what didn’t. Learn from your mistakes.
17. Brainstorm. Have the staff develop ideas for follow-up stories and new angles.
18. Editorialize. Use your editorial page to reflect on the big story.
19. Make space for letters to the editor. If you get a large number of letters to the editor, create extra space for them or post a letters section on your Web site. Let your readers know you’re listening to them.
20. Ask why. If a deadly fire breaks out, examine fire inspection reports. If a winning coach resigns unexpectedly, look at the factors that drove him or her to leave. Look at university policies, local and state laws and other factors that may have contributed to the crisis.
21. Don’t drop the ball. Most big stories demand follow up. Keep on the story until it’s really over. Follow up on lawsuits, reports, indictments and other news that may come weeks, months or even years after the news event.
22. Take care of yourselves. If staff members are upset or traumatized by the event, get help from your campus counseling center. You may want to bring in a counselor to address your staff.

For more information on covering tragedy, consult the Dart Center for Journalism & Trauma.

Tuesday, May 16, 2006

15 Ways to Build an Award-Winning Newspaper

Awards bring prestige to your publication, motivate your staff and help graduates land jobs. Follow these tips to turn your student newspaper into an award-winning publication.

1. Train. Train. Train. Training is essential. If your paper doesn't already have a comprehensive training program, create one. And if you already train your staff, add more training. Make sure training includes all aspects of the publication – design, photography, online, writing, reporting, and editing.

2. Learn from the pros. Invite professionals from the local media as well as graphic design, photography, and writing teachers on campus to lead sessions. Incorporate team-building and leadership-training exercises.

3. Set up a beat system. Most newspapers assign reporters to cover certain topic areas. Beat coverage assures you're covering your campus thoroughly and helps reporters come up with focused story ideas. Traditional campus beats include:

• Student government
• Campus police
• Transportation and parking
• Sports
• Arts & entertainment
• College administration
• Academic departments

But consider other beats, too, such as:

* Shelter – on-campus housing, off-campus housing, living with parents, roommates, rent laws
* Health and fitness – health crazes, diets, gym facilities, health insurance, health center
* Science and environment – environmental issues on campus, scientific research, environmental groups
* Alcohol, smoking and drugs – trends, smoking policies, drug policies, drinking laws
* Religion – religious observances and holidays, religious groups on campus
* Diversity – racial/ethnic issues and conflicts, disability resources on campus
* Sex and relationships – trend stories, studies on sexuality, sexually transmitted diseases

4. Network with the pros. Get to know professional reporters covering your college or university. Although it may be a little uncomfortable reaching out to your direct competitor, professionals at non-competing papers may be happy to share information about how to cover your college or higher education in general. Join professional groups of reporters, editors and photographers. Groups like Investigative Reporters and Editors (IRE), Society of Professional Journalists (SPJ), American Society of Copy Editors and some local press clubs welcome students, and professional members are often happy to give advice. These groups often have reduced-price memberships for students and some sponsor conferences, workshops, listservs and other events or services that could help you. Getting involved in such organizations can also provide good contacts for lining up internships and jobs down the line.

5. Beef up your Web site. Many college Web sites don't take advantage of their online product, (making online awards easier to win!) In addition to posting Web-exclusive content you should also use the site to publish documents related to your stories and photo galleries of images that couldn't fit in your paper. Invite readers to comment on stories – and make it easy for them to do so. Provide helpful links to Web sites that will enhance your stories.

6. Make use of new technology, particularly on the Web. Try podcasting, blogging, multimedia slide shows, video and other new and emerging technologies and storytelling forms, which will set your publication apart.

7. Undertake a redesign. If your paper is looking tired, give it a new look. Check out for ideas about what other college papers are doing with design. Other good sites for design tips:

8. Take a stand. Editorials, reviews, columns, and other opinion pieces are designed to state opinions and judges have respect for bold, well-argued opinions. Be fair and tasteful, respecting your sources and your readers, but don't be timid. Back up your stance with facts to create a cogent and compelling argument.

9. Take on projects. Go beyond day-to-day coverage with special projects, series, special sections, recurring features. These are the kinds of enterprise stories that win awards.

10. Package stories well. When you've got a project or special story, give it a smart package with display type, graphics, sidebars and a logo that sets it apart.

11. Set up an investigative team. Investigative stories bring attention to your publication. Send the team to an Investigative Reporters and Editors, Inc. conference for training, ideas and inspiration.

12. Plan to compete. At the beginning of each term get or make a list of the major competitions and deadlines. Write the deadlines on your calendar. Assign an individual or team to prepare entries.

13. Announce competitions to the staff at least a month in advance. That gives people time to compile entries and fill out forms. Don't leave this to the last minute -- postmark deadlines are usually strict!

14. Encourage specialty reporting. Many organizations, such as the Religion Newswriters Association, offer awards for reporting in specialty areas.

15. Award yourself. Don't wait for outside world to give you recognition. Honor your own staff. And don't just have awards at the end of the semester. Editors or advisers should set up a weekly awards system to recognize great work and boost staff morale. Pass out certificates and/or small gifts – candy, perhaps, or mugs, T-shirts, pens or other stuff with your newspaper's logo.

"15 Ways to Build an Award-Winning Newspaper" is adapted from The Student Newspaper Survival Guide by Rachele Kanigel. Click here to order the book.